Children and Young People's Nursing BSc (Hons)Study level: Undergraduate
Professionally Accredited Programmes
This course is designed to equip you with the hands-on clinical and care skills to become a caring practitioner well-prepared to meet the needs of children, young people and their families.
Year of entry
Coventry University (Coventry)
3 years full-time
Fully accredited by the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) providing eligibility for registration as a nurse on successful completion of the course (additional costs may apply).
- Ranked 11th in the UK for Nursing and Midwifery in the Guardian University Guide 2022.
- All home students on this course can apply for a minimum payment from the Government of £5,000 per year, with additional payments for students incurring childcare costs6.
- Study in the state-of-the-art Alison Gingell Building which features hospital wards, operating theatre, critical care settings, community housing and other real-life nursing environments relevant to practice4.
Global ReadyAn international outlook, with global opportunities
Teaching excellenceTaught by lecturers who are experts in their field
EmployabilityCareer ready graduates, with the skills to succeed
Why you should study this course
This course has been designed to enable you to analyse the needs of, and develop and deliver effective care for, children from birth to young adulthood. You will consider their physiological needs, mental health and wellbeing in the provision of care and understand the importance of evidence informed practice, care and compassion.
The course focuses on integrated care for children and young people in a variety of settings. You will not only focus on acute/hospital settings, but also on community children’s nursing, supporting children with long-term chronic conditions, health visiting and child and adolescent mental health services.
You will be taught to value the needs of children and their families through their ongoing involvement in the curriculum. You will have the opportunity to develop skills in communication, health assessment, professional practice, evidence-based practice, knowledge of public health and policy, and legal and ethical issues.
Placing equal value on practice and theory, undertaking 800 hours of both per year, you will study a wide range of subjects, including anatomy and physiology, pharmacology, psychology, sociology and research methods. You’ll become immersed in learning about the needs of populations, individuals, related health and nursing services with an emphasis on using research to enhance and improve services.
From the outset, you’ll gain hands-on experience under supervision from qualified mentors, spending around 50% of your time on clinical practice placements5 in a range of healthcare environments within the NHS in hospitals and community placements, at private hospitals and independent care providers. We have well-established links with local partner NHS trusts and other healthcare providers, such as private hospitals, hospices, and community settings.
The facilities4 in the multi-million-pound Alison Gingell Building includes mock hospital wards, operating theatre, critical care settings, community housing and other real-life nursing environments relevant to practice. You will have the opportunity to make use of our extensive simulation facilities – from basic life support manikins to high tech simulation dummies, which emulate patient responses and test resuscitation skills. You will also use equipment found in the real world of practice, such as medical devices to assist with all elements of care and especially medication administrations.
While the course has a clear focus on nursing children and young people, a key benefit of our curriculum is the notion of collaboration across all areas of health and social care. Your studies will be complemented with signiﬁcant insights into mental health, learning disability and adult nursing. Some modules are also studied in conjunction with other health and social care professionals; looking at specific issues and challenges they face to broaden your knowledge and expertise.
The curriculum has been designed to produce professionals who are effective communicators, caring and compassionate, with good relationship building skills. It recognises the importance of inter-professional working within the health and social care workforce and comprises two modules in the areas of health and wellbeing in the community as well as leadership and management. Your degree culminates with a 5,000 word literature review related to one aspect of nursing practice and which is equivalent to the standard dissertation.
The course is underpinned by an approach to professional care which is characterised by empathy, respect, dignity and kindness towards patients and their families. We will encourage you to develop an in-depth understanding of the organisation and culture of modern healthcare systems, which should equip you with the confidence to be able to take a stronger role in the leadership and management of resources in delivering treatment and healthcare options to patients. The aim is to prepare you for the dynamic and fast changing health and social care system, which should help you to develop into an adaptable, flexible, reflective, competent and compassionate practitioner.
All students on this course will qualify for a minimum payment from the Government of £5,000 per year, with additional payments for students incurring childcare costs6.
Accreditation and Professional Recognition
This course is accredited4 and recognised by the following bodies:
Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC)
The course is accredited by the UK Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) for the 2023/24 intake and, providing you also meet the NMC requirements, on successful completion you will be eligible to apply for registration with the Nursing and Midwifery Council (subject to additional costs).
Nursing at Coventry University
We have an excellent reputation for the quality of the education provided to trainee and qualified nurses.Learn why you should study with us
What you'll study
An introduction to the art and science of nursing in general but also containing the specifics of Children and Young People’s Nursing and family-centred care. The university will source two 10-week placements for you5. One will be within a paediatric acute care setting and another within the community. All students must be able to travel across Coventry and Warwickshire as this is our main placement area.
Within year one placements students may also undertake virtual simulated practice. This involves group working within understanding local community issues and health service planning, online simulated patient scenarios for students to work through and undertake assessment within and paediatric focused clinical skills and scenarios. Service users are also involved, providing feedback upon case study presentations.
The Scientific Foundations of Nursing Practice -20 credits
This module will introduce the scientific foundations of nursing which apply to holistic care across the lifespan and key concepts that underpin nursing practice. It will enable you to develop your knowledge of relevant human anatomy and physiology. Moreover, principles of microbiology, psychology, sociology and pharmacology will be explored, and an introduction of the common physiological dysfunctions associated to specific fields of practice will be included. Pharmacological treatment associated to common conditions will be examined.
Fundamental Skills for Person- and Family-Centred Practice - 20 credits
This module aims to introduce you to the fundamental skills required for person- and family-centred practice. You will be introduced to the concepts and theories relevant to the assessment of health and wellbeing across the lifespan, in a range of care settings for the four fields of nursing.
Study Skills for Evidence Based Practice - 10 credits
This module aims to develop your academic writing skills, critical-thinking ability and reflective practice in the context of degree-level study. The content will also refer to numeracy skills, which for nursing are crucial in patient safety. Some skills will also relate to developing competence in database searching and subsequently its importance in the utilisation and application of evidence-based nursing practice. The content of the module will also include relevant organisational skills and maintenance of personal wellbeing.
The Foundations of Evidence-Informed Practice - 10 credits
This module aims to introduce you to evidence-based practice and research in nursing. You will have the opportunity to develop understanding of your usefulness and importance in contributing to underpinning nursing knowledge and decisions. You will seek to gain a fundamental understanding of various methodological approaches and the research process. The skills of appraising evidence and research will be explored and developed.
Health and Wellbeing in the Community - 20 credits
This module aims to develop your knowledge and understanding of the social, politico-economic, cultural and environmental factors that influence individual and community health and wellbeing. The module aims to draw upon key international, national and local initiatives to support learning and will take place within an inter-professional context.
To achieve this aim, you will explore concepts of wellbeing, disabilities, disease and illness, health inequality and inequity. In addition, you will examine key health and social care initiatives that will enable you to understand the importance of person-centred approaches to wellbeing, prevention, care and support. As you progress through the module you will look to develop inter-professional capabilities of communication, role clarification, decision-making and team-working enabling you to practice and promote healthy conversations about lifestyle.
Introduction to the Foundations of Nursing Practice (Practice 1) - 20 credits
This module5 introduces you to the foundations of nursing practice in the workplace. The experience will provide you with learning opportunities (under supervision) which will begin to develop the professional values, attitudes and behaviours required to deliver safe and effective holistic person- and family-centred care.
The Foundations of Nursing Practice (Practice 2) - 20 credits
This module5 provides extended opportunity for you to contribute to the foundations of nursing practice in the workplace. This experience will enable you to demonstrate and promote professional values, attitudes and behaviours required to deliver safe and effective holistic person-centred care.
This is a step up from year one, developing further the knowledge base for Children and Young People’s Nursing as well as assessment and management skills.
Ethical and Legal Decision-making in the Context of Nursing - 20 credits
This module will introduce you to the underlying principles of healthcare ethics, legislation and social policy. This will include the protection of vulnerable people across the lifespan including those with complex needs. You should be equipped to recognise ethical challenges relating to people's choices and decision-making about their health and wellbeing across care settings. Ability to act within the law to help service users, families and carers to manage needs will be explored.
Developing the Management of Care Across the Lifespan (Practice 3) - 20 credits
This module5 provides you with opportunities in the workplace to build on your foundations of practice and enable you to work more independently with less direct supervision in an increasingly competent and confident manner to deliver quality holistic person- and family-centred care. It will provide you with the opportunity to demonstrate, through your practice, your potential to become an autonomous practitioner.
Assessing needs and Planning care Across the Lifespan - 20 credits
The aim of this module is to further develop your knowledge and understanding in learning the assessment and care planning process across the age continuum. It builds on year one of the curriculum adding further to your knowledge of embryology, maternal health, developmental anatomy and physiology and the pathophysiology of all commonly encountered mental, physical, behavioural and cognitive conditions.
Advancing Therapeutic care Delivery within Children and Young People’s Nursing - 20 credits
This module aims to develop your skills and knowledge relating to therapeutic care delivery. A diverse range of therapeutic approaches to care will be explored in relation to health and social care provision for children and young people. This will incorporate analysing the psychological, sociological, educational and pharmacological needs of children and young people.
You will critically analyse the differing psychosocial and cultural needs of children and young people within modern society. The module will provide an opportunity for you to explore the therapeutic needs of children and young people, incorporating a holistic approach to care delivery.
Managing Care Across the Lifespan (Practice 4) - 20 credits
This module5 provides you with additional opportunities to display your ability to work more independently, with less direct supervision, in a safe and increasingly confident manner to deliver quality holistic person- and family-centred care. It will provide you with the opportunity to extend and apply your knowledge and skills towards becoming an autonomous practitioner.
Developing Evidence Informed Decision making in Nursing - 10 credits
This module provides you with the opportunity to build further on skills and knowledge related to research and evidence-informed practice acquired in year one. It enables you to develop specific nursing-focused questions to underpin evidence-informed decision-making and practice. You will develop a research proposal to underpin year three work. The processes of literature review and research production, including ethical requirements will be analysed, taking into account global and cultural perspectives.
Facilitation and Teaching of Learning in Practice - 10 credits
This module5 demonstrates how the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) Standards Framework for Nursing and Midwifery Education (particularly Part 2- Standards for Student Supervision and Assessment) (NMC, 2018) are applied in practice.
This module will enable you to understand the role of the practice supervisor (in association with the practice assessor and academic assessor) through reflective practice and the novice to expert model. This module aims to develop your inter-professional learning and working through supporting and supervising fellow students of the multidisciplinary team.
Year three focuses on leadership and management, culminating in preparing you, by the end of the programme, to possess the skills to practice as an autonomous practitioner.
Integrated Care Provision for Children with Complex Needs - 20 credits
The aim of this module is to critically analyse health and social care provision for children and young people with complex care needs and their families. All stages of the child's possible journey will be critically interpreted with a focus on seamless inter-professional working. Critical evaluation of the child's current care needs and making appropriate evidence-informed decisions in consultation with the child and family are integral to this module. The need to be a flexible and responsive practitioner with a skillset that can meet the specific needs of complex healthcare provision within child health is embedded throughout this module.
Leadership and Management for Healthcare Professionals - 20 credits
This module aims to support the development of the leadership behaviours and management skills required to function effectively as a newly qualified registered healthcare professional working within the multi-professional team in the delivery of high-quality care.
You will critically examine clinical leadership and ‘followership’ models and the concept of empowerment and distributed leadership, to gain understanding of ethical leadership, culture and values within the delivery of care. You will explore the concepts of service improvement and gain experience of leading and participating in projects, using relevant management tools and techniques.
You will reflect on your observed experience of clinical leadership behaviours and management skills whilst on clinical placement throughout their course, to develop a personal development plan to guide your ongoing leadership development as a healthcare professional.
Evidence Based Project - 20 credits
This module provides you with the opportunity to undertake an in-depth exploration in an area of special interest which will have relevance to nursing practice and which makes clear connections with local and/or national priorities in health and social care. You will establish a specific question upon which to focus and using an appropriate method of enquiry, you will be required to systematically investigate the question and analyse the information generated in order to derive a set of findings or results using a literature-based strategy. On the basis of the study results, you will be encouraged to identify the implications and recommendations for professional nursing practice and collaborative healthcare. On completion of this module, you will have an enhanced understanding of the relationship between the research and evidence-based practice and professional nursing care.
Contemporary Concepts: Children and Young People’s Nursing - 10 credits
The aim of this module is to explore specialist and contemporary concepts in relation to the delivery of care to children and their families. This exploration will concern national and local policies and provision, politico-legal concepts, and contemporary issues around specialist commissioning for children and young people’s services. The principles of developing innovative nursing roles, nurse-led services, advancing the future of children and young people’s nursing within these specialist services will also be considered. The sustainability, financial competence and evaluation of these roles and services will be analysed.
You will also build upon your knowledge and understanding of epidemiology, aetiology and pathophysiology by considering specialist conditions affecting children and young people, their family and carers.
Co-ordinating Inter-professional Health and Social Care Practice (Practice 5) - 20 credits
This module aims to extend your ability to practice more independently in a safe and increasingly competent and confident manner. This will enable you to become autonomous practitioners who are responsible and accountable for safe, compassionate, person-centred, evidence-informed nursing that respects and maintains dignity and human rights.
Transition to the Accountable Practitioner - 10 credits
This module will critically review the accountability and responsibility of the registered nurse in clinical practice. It will explore the key attributes of accountable practice such as individual accountability, escalating concerns, managerial responsibilities, safety, quality, delegation and clinical decision-making within the context of providing safe, effective, person centred and compassionate care.
The Autonomous Practitioner (Practice 6) - 20 credits
This module aims to provide you with opportunities to practice the competencies identified for registration as a nurse which are stipulated by the Nursing and Midwifery Council (2018). This includes demonstrating your competence to:
- Practice autonomously, compassionately, skilfully and safely whilst maintaining dignity and promoting health and wellbeing
- Display professional accountability and responsibility by the use of clinical governance processes to maintain and improve nursing practice and standards of healthcare
- Use management and leadership skills to take the lead in coordinating, delegating and supervising care safely, including the management of risk and ensuring public safety
- Communicate in a safe, effective, compassionate and respectful manner
- Exhibit the capability of informed decision making to promote, plan, and prioritise service delivery.
We regularly review our course content, to make it relevant and current for the benefit of our students. For these reasons, course modules may be updated.
How you'll learn
This course uses a wide variety of approaches to teaching and learning to suit individual learning styles. This includes a series of interactive lectures with associated seminars, skills laboratory activities, simulations and practical placements5. All modules are mandatory so that upon successful completion you will have the knowledge, values and skills required to be able to work within integrated care settings and enhance the delivery of care for children, young people, their families and carers.
Gaining experience using simulation across a range of care settings is aimed at building your confidence and knowledge about how to act in these situations. This is designed so that you can practice and develop your clinical and interpersonal skills in a safe but realistic environment.
As 50% of the course is practice-based, when on placement you will spend approximately 40 hours per week in clinical areas, which will include nights and weekends. Contact teaching hours will vary throughout the course, but on average you will have around 21 ‘contact’ hours of teaching per week in year one. This generally breaks down as seminar preparation, group work, workshops, activity-led seminars and lectures.
In addition, you will be expected to undertake a further 15-20 hours each week of private study which can include self-directed learning and online activities which augment other approaches.
Over the duration of the course, as you become a more independent learner the contact hours will reduce (around 13 in year 2 and 11 in year 3) and independent study will increase.
The contact hours may be made up of a combination of face-to-face teaching, individual and group tutorials, and online classes and tutorials.
As an innovative and enterprising institution, the University may seek to utilise emerging technologies within the student experience. For all courses (whether on-campus, blended, or distance learning), the University may deliver certain contact hours and assessments via online technologies and methods.
This course will be assessed using a variety of methods which will vary depending upon the module. Assessment methods include:
- Practice placement assessments
- Written coursework
- Formal examinations.
The Coventry University Group assessment strategy ensures that our courses are fairly assessed and allows us to monitor student progression towards achieving the intended learning outcomes.
International experience opportunities
Throughout the course, we aim to provide key insights into cultural diversity and global issues of significance to public health and in most fields of nursing practice. For example, we look at what it means to be culturally competent within healthcare today.
The School of Nursing, Midwifery and Health is very active in supporting students to undertake international learning opportunities through mobility i.e. field trips or at home via collaborative online international learning opportunities2. Please be aware these would need to be undertaken within annual leave due to time constraints upon the course in preparing students for registration.
Typical offer for 2023/24 entry.
|Requirement||What we're looking for|
|A level||BBB - excludes General Studies|
|GCSE||Minimum 5 GCSEs graded 9-4 / A*- C including English, Mathematics and Science|
|BTEC||DDM in a Health, Sport or Science-based subject|
|IB Diploma||32 points with 14 at Higher Level|
|Access to HE||The Access to HE Diploma in Health or Science subject to include 33 Level 3 credits at Distinction and 12 at Merit in Health units, plus GCSE English and Mathematics at Grade 4/C or above|
We recognise a breadth of qualifications, speak to one of our advisers today to find out how we can help you.
Caring experience, either paid or voluntary is essential. You will also be required to attend a selection event, which provides detailed information about the course and assesses numeracy, literacy and aptitude as part of the selection process. Skills in digital and technological literacy are considered vital and there is opportunity to develop these throughout the course.
Satisfactory health clearance and enhanced criminal records disclosure is also required. As part of the health clearance checks you will be required to provide information about your immunity and vaccination status. You will also be required to provide information about your COVID-19 vaccination status. We therefore recommend that you are fully vaccinated including the COVID-19 vaccine. The information you provide will be used to determine your eligibility to go on placement(s). Placements are provided at the placement provider’s discretion. The University is therefore unable to guarantee the provision of placements or the location and type of placement offered5.
Is the student required to undergo a DBS check? Y
Is the student required or likely to undergo a placement in a social and/or healthcare setting? Y5.
Are you eligible for the Fair Access Scheme?
We believe every student should have the opportunity to dream big, reach their potential and succeed, regardless of their background. Find out more about our Fair Access Scheme.
Select your region to find detailed information about entry requirements:
You can view our full list of country specific entry requirements on our Entry requirements page.
Alternatively, visit our International hub for further advice and guidance on finding in-country agents and representatives, joining our in-country events and how to apply.
Caring experience, either paid or voluntary is essential. You will also be required to attend a selection event, which provides detailed information about the course and assesses numeracy, literacy and aptitude as part of the selection process. Satisfactory health clearance and enhanced criminal records disclosure required. Skills in digital and technological literacy are considered vital and there is opportunity to develop these throughout the course.
You will also be required to attend a selection event which provides detailed information about the course and assesses numeracy, literacy and aptitude as part of the selection process.
Is the student required to undergo a DBS check? Y
Is the student required or likely to undergo a placement in a social and/or healthcare setting? Y5.
English language requirements
- This course requires an IELTS of 7.0 overall, with no component lower than 6.5.
If you don't meet the English language requirements, you can achieve the level you need by successfully completing a pre-sessional English programme before you start your course.
For more information on our approved English language tests visit our English language requirements page.
Fees and funding
|UK||£9,250 per year||Not available|
|International||£19,850 per year||Not available|
A non-repayable grant of £5,000 and extra payments worth up to £3,000 may be available to eligible home students for each year of study. Read more about this in the NHS Learning Support Fund information booklet.
For advice and guidance on tuition fees and student loans visit our Undergraduate Finance page and see The University’s Tuition Fee and Refund Terms and Conditions.
We offer a range of International scholarships to students all over the world. For more information, visit our International Scholarships page.
Tuition fees cover the cost of your teaching, assessments, facilities and support services. There may be additional costs not covered by this fee such as accommodation and living costs, recommended reading books, stationery, printing and re-assessments should you need them. Find out what's included in your tuition costs.
How do you know if you need to pay UK or international tuition fees?
We carry out an initial fee status assessment based on the information you provide in your application. Your fee status determines your tuition fees, and what financial support and scholarships may be available to you. The rules about who pays UK (home) or international (overseas) fees for higher education courses in England are set by the government's Department for Education. The regulations identify all the different categories of student who can insist on paying the home rate. The regulations can be difficult to understand, so the UK Council for International Student Affairs (UKCISA) has provided fee status guidance to help you identify whether you are eligible to pay the home or overseas rate.
If you meet all the criteria required by any one category, including any residence requirements, your institution must charge you the home rate. You only need to find one category that you fit into.
Our facilities4 include:
Alison Gingell Building
Our state-of-the-art Alison Gingell Building features mock hospital wards, an operating theatre, critical care settings and other real-life nursing environments.
Learn how to work with patients outside of a hospital setting in our simulated, two full-size community homes, specifically built for teaching.
Our midwifery suite is equipped with delivery facilities including water birth options. Student midwives also use mannequins to simulate routine and emergency care to mothers and babies.
Careers and opportunities
During your three years on this course you will undertake six placements (sourced by the university)5 in a range of service settings, working with and alongside qualiﬁed children and young people’s nurses, and therefore potential local and regional employers.
On graduating successfully from this course, you can apply for registration (subject to additional costs) with the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC), which enables you to practice immediately.
The majority of our graduates ﬁnd employment as qualiﬁed nurses in the NHS with a growing emphasis on community settings, in acute hospitals, or within the private and independent healthcare sector. As your career progresses, a number of options may be open to you as a lecturer or specialist practitioner, advanced nurse practitioner, consultant nurse or manager. You could specialise in areas such as community children’s nursing, health visiting, neonatal nursing, paediatric intensive care nursing or move into areas such as management, teaching or clinical research.
Where our graduates work
Recent graduates have gone on to roles working on paediatric wards, neonatal units, hospice and respite care, children’s emergency departments and community children’s nursing.
You can choose to continue your studies at Coventry University with the Nursing Msc. You may be entitled to an alumni discount on your fees if you decide to extend your time with us by progressing from undergraduate to postgraduate study.
How to apply
Full-time students applying to start in September 2023 can apply for this course through UCAS from 6 September 2022. Read our application pages to find out your next steps to apply.
Part-time students should apply directly to the university.
If you'd like further support or more information about your course get in touch with us today.
Chat with our admissions team
Complete our contact form
Full-time students applying to start in September 2023 should apply directly to the university.How to apply
For further support for international applicants applying for an undergraduate degree view our International hub.
You can also download our International guide which contains lots of useful information about our courses, accommodation and tips for travel.
Get in touch with us today for further advice and guidance.
Chat with our admissions team
Complete our contact form
The majority of our courses have been formally recognised by professional bodies, which means the courses have been reviewed and tested to ensure they reach a set standard. In some instances, studying on an accredited course can give you additional benefits such as exemptions from professional exams (subject to availability, fees may apply). Accreditations, partnerships, exemptions and memberships shall be renewed in accordance with the relevant bodies’ standard review process and subject to the university maintaining the same high standards of course delivery.
2UK and international opportunities
Please note that we are unable to guarantee any UK or International opportunities (whether required or optional) such as internships, work experience, field trips, conferences, placements or study abroad opportunities and that all such opportunities may be subject to additional costs (which could include, but is not limited to, equipment, materials, bench fees, studio or facilities hire, travel, accommodation and visas), competitive application, availability and/or meeting any applicable travel COVID and visa requirements. To ensure that you fully understand the visa requirements, please contact the International Office.
The University will charge the tuition fees that are stated in the above table for the first Academic Year of study. The University will review tuition fees each year. For Home Students, if Parliament permit an increase in tuition fees, the University may increase fees for each subsequent year of study in line with any such changes. Note that any increase is expected to be in line with inflation.
For International Students, we may increase fees each year but such increases will be no more than 5% above inflation. If you defer your course start date or have to extend your studies beyond the normal duration of the course (e.g. to repeat a year or resit examinations) the University reserves the right to charge you fees at a higher rate and/or in accordance with any legislative changes during the additional period of study.
Facilities are subject to availability. Due to the ongoing restrictions relating to COVID-19, some facilities (including some teaching and learning spaces) may vary from those advertised and may have reduced availability or restrictions on their use.
Satisfactory health clearance and enhanced criminal record disclosure is also required. As part of the health clearance checks you will be required to provide information about your immunity and vaccination status. You will also be required to provide information about your COVID-19 vaccination status. We therefore recommend that you are fully vaccinated including the COVID-19 vaccine. The information you provide will be used to determine your eligibility to go on placement(s). Placements are provided at the placement provider’s discretion. The University is therefore unable to guarantee the provision of placements or the location and type of placement offered.
The rules may be subject to review by the Department of Health and Social Care (DHSC) in the future and as a result may change. Please therefore check the NHSBSA website for up-to-date information before applying.
By accepting your offer of a place and enrolling with us, a Student Contract will be formed between you and the university. The 2022/23 Contract is currently being updated so please revisit this page before submitting your application. The Contract details your rights and the obligations you will be bound by during your time as a student and contains the obligations that the university will owe to you. You should read the Contract before you accept an offer of a place and before you enrol at the university.