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Annotations and mark-ups


Currently, the ELC is annotated for three pragmatic features: Humour, Storytelling and Summary.


Element Attribute Description Example of annotated discourse File ID
Humour Bawdy A lewd or vulgar reference (direct or implied) usually related to sex. lt what I'm going to ask you to do is trust me so I want you to all strip naked and fall back like this no not that amount of trust is needed 1006
Black Satirical treatment of taboo or dark topics. Ok this this slide show how children go to school in India yah and then again from here we can see that er this is quite a hazardous way to cross the river if say er if this is in Malaysia then Sarawak for instance then there'll be some crocs waiting underneath here so if the any one of the children fall then the croc will surely have a very heavy meal. 2010
Disparaging An utterance that belittles something or someone - often an out of group member. I was waiting for someone to ask if I would kindly derive these two equations and um my answer to that was going to be er A we can’t spare the time B you wouldn’t understand it so there really isn’t any point. 1029
Irony/ sarcasm An utterance that means the opposite of what is said. There’s delta and there’s rectangular and obviously those words are quite similar so it’s easy to er be confused when you look at the words. 1029
Joke A time out short story with a set-up and a punchline. He said ah this reminds me of th- the time that ah the students went to the lecture and um there was no lecturer there was just a tape recorder and it said when you've all assembled just switch this on and take notes and the lecturer came in for the next lecture the following week and what did he find there were twenty tape recorders scattered about the room with a little note saying when you come switch this one and just start talking. 1030
Playful Untargeted uncritical humour intended solely to amuse. You can’t go wrong if you follow the method we’ll say fun-sized Mars bar if you hav- if you write something down but get the wrong answer family pack Mars bar double whammy if you don’t even try it and because no one complained this is a formal wager. 1005
Self-deprecating Negative reference to the self for comic effect – commonly linked to physical attributes and cognitive abilities. If I would have to machine this I would pull my left hair out my few I have left 3019
Teasing/mock-threat Gentle mockery of an audience member or the audience / exaggerated threats made in jest to underline a requirement or concept. I will open it up again for another two weeks except for the person whose phone's going off cause they're not gonna be able to sit down for about a month. 1004
Wordplay A display of wit for amusement where meaning centres of word choice. So remember I talked about relationships concentric coincident yeah we’ve got the same here um now there’s an opportunity to laugh again it’s called mate yeah no laughers today ok so we are mating now parts together. 3020


Element Attribute Description Example of annotated discourse File ID
Story Anecdote Where events are problematised and remain unresolved, accompanied by an emotional reaction. If you put a a lump of concrete in a microwave oven just take a uh a little well it works best wi- with actually grout y- you don't do it with the aggregate um good strong mix um fully saturated put it in a microwave put it on full heat and you'll probably break the plate because it explodes um certainly I did once much to the disgust of the owner of the microwave at Leeds University. 1014
Exemplum Where events are problematised and remain unresolved, accompanied by scientific or moral judgment. I hate to admit to this one but one site I was on we had cube failures and the reason was that when I’d been sending the cubes off I’d been having to break the ice on the top of the tank before I could get them out and um the tank had a heater in we just hadn’t bothered to get the spark to wire it in and ah fairly obviously by the time the area manager appeared to ah come and have a look and see what had gone wrong it was all wired in and working fine and we said oh no no problem with that would we do a thing like that and ah but ok sort of nevertheless it caused endless hassle the fact that we’d had these cube failures if you keep them too cold they’ll go down a low strength. 1012
Narrative Where events are problematised and resolved. Yeah rim on a steel wheel you know th- the good old horse carts yeah that's how they put the rims on there they heated up the rims and hammer them on and then le- just let them cool down and you could never get them off the wooden yeah wheels yeah that's how that was done just basically shrunk on there. 3019
Recount An unproblematised retelling of events. So from the video you can see that the the girl was hit by the forklift because because of very very simple reason she did not hear anything because of her I-tunes er normally when you use I-tune you listen the music very very loud so it will cut you off anything from outside so even though the forklift driver he er use the horn or whatever so the the the girl in this video yeah even though it's acting she did not hear anything and hence she was hit by the forklift this type of accident actually occur sometimes. 2010


Element Attribute Description Example of annotated discourse File ID
Summary Review previous lecture content A backward reference to information already given on the module or course prior to the current lecture. Let’s just review back what we did yesterday we talked about the refrigerator yeah we talked about the refrigerator and you were introduced to refrigerators and the heat pump. 2017
Review current lecture content A backward reference to information already given within the current lecture. Main three things that have come out of here though out of these tests is yield stress ultimate stress and modulus of elasticity. 3026
preview current lecture content A forward reference to information that is upcoming in the current lecture. So what are we going to do today is we are going to wrap up chapter five the second law of thermodynamics yeah so today we should be able to determine finally the thermo efficiencies and the coefficient of performance for our ideal our reversible or our Carnot cycle. 2019
Preview current lecture content A forward reference to information that is upcoming in future lectures on the module or course. In the next two lectures we’re actually going to delve a little bit into material properties and then we’re going to get back into the solid mechanics. 3024


The general mark-up design of the ELC follows choices made within the BASE corpus. It adheres to TEI-compliant structural mark-up standards. Encoding in the ELC files is in XML. 

The structural elements are: 

  • Container elements – these are the tags used in the header metadata, and speaker utterance tags in the body of the transcript that identify sex and academic status. The lecturer is identified by a two letter code for sex (nf/nm = female non-student/male non-student). For example: <u who="sm"> is a male student, <u who="sf"> is a female student, and <u who="ss"> is a group of students. This is followed by a four digit unique identifier, such as <u who="nm1003">, which signifies a male lecturer from the UK component who is identified as 1003. The close of each utterance is marked by the end tag </u>. (Container elements are also used in the annotation system.)

  • Empty elements – six of these are commonly used: <gap reason="inaudible"/>, <gap reason="pause"/>, <vocal desc="laughter"/>, <vocal desc="voice from video"/>, <event desc="writes on board"/>, and <event desc="draws on board"/>. Other empty elements record unusual occurrences, for example <event desc="drops pen"> which has been inserted to make sense of the “oops” that follows. All pauses of perceivable length are recorded as <gap reason="pause">. Significant gaps for breaks in recordings and inaudible speech are identified in the same way with the addition of length in time data, for example <gap reason="break in recording" dur="00:01:12"/>. 

Each file header contains a file description (including title and citation information along with a source description of recording and transcription information), a description of encoding, and a profile description of non-bibliographic information (such as the number of participants, the meaning of unique identifiers, level and module).

Here is an example of a file header used in ELC.

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University of the year shortlisted
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