Research using the BAWE Corpus

Over a hundred publications have now reported research based on BAWE data (see below for a publications list).

Discipline, level, genre: Integrating multiple situational perspectives in a new MD analysis of university student writing, by Sheena Gardner, Hilary Nesi and Doug Biber is now an open-access publication in Applied Linguistics. This article identifies, describes and exemplifies clusters of linguistic features in the BAWE corpus, with reference to academic disciplines, disciplinary groups, levels of study and genre families. 

See also A classification of genre families in university student writing by Sheena Gardner and Hilary Nesi, in Applied Linguistics 34 (1) 1-29.

Genres across the Disciplines by Hilary Nesi and Sheena Gardner describes and discusses genres of assessed writing in UK higher education, drawing on evidence from the BAWE corpus. Chapter Two is available open access. For reviews of this book see:

Chun, C. (2014) TESOL Quarterly 48 (4) 862-4

Lawrence, A. (2013) Journal of English for Academic Purposes 12 (4) 313-4

Lee, J. & Casal, J.E. (2013) System 41 (2) 485-7

Simpson, A. (2013) Review ~ Genres Across the DisciplinesTeflnet April 2013

Tribble, C. (2013) ELT Journal 67 (2) 253-260.


A - H

I - P

  • Iyeiri, Y. (2017). Recent Changes in the Use of the Verb forbidMemoirs of the Faculty of Letters, Kyoto University 56: 195-218.
  • Iyeiri, Y. (2016) BAWE (British Academic Written English) ni Miru Hobun no Doko: Ruiji no Imi wo Yusuru forbid to prohibit ni tsuite no Shiteki Kosatsu (Recent trends in the choice of verb complements in contemporary English: forbid and prohibit in BAWE, two verbs of implicit negation, considered from a historical perspective). In Y. Ogawa, A. Nagano, and A. Kikuchi (eds.) Kopasu kara Wakaru Gengo Henka, Hen-i to Gengo Riron (Language Change, Language Variation and Corpus-driven Linguistic Theories). Tokyo: Kaitakusha, pp. 50-63.
  • Jung, C.K. and Wharton, S. (2012). Finding Textual Examples of Genres: Issues for Corpus Users. Korean Journal of English Language and Linguistics 12 (1), 129-148.
  • Kakkonen, T. (2009) TexComp - A Text Complexity Analyzer for Student Texts. Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Interactive Computer-aided Learning, Villach, Austria, 2009.
  • King, D. & Hickey, H. (2017) Creating and using corpora: A principled approach to identifying key language within art & design. Spark: UAL Creative Teaching and Learning Journal, 2 (3)
  • Kirk, S. (2017) Waves of Reflection: seeing knowledges in academic writing. In Kemp, J. (ed.) EAP in a rapidly changing landscape: issues, challenges and solutions. Proceedings of the 2015 BALEAP Conference. Reading: Garnet Publishing.
  • Kwary, D.A. (2011) A hybrid method for determining technical vocabulary. System 39 (2) 175-185.
  • Lee, D. & X. Chen (2009) Making a bigger deal of smaller words: function words and other key items in research writing by Chinese learners. Journal of Second Language Writing, 18 (4) 281-296.
  • Lee, D. & X. Chen (2008) Small words, big deal: teaching the use of function words and other key items in research writing. In: Frankenberg-Garcia, A., Rkibi, T., Braga da Cruz, M., Carvalho, R., Direito, C. & Santos-Rosa, D. (eds) Proceedings of the 8th Teaching and Language Corpora Conference. Lisbon, Portugal: ISLA, pp. 198-206.
  • Leedham, M. & Fernandez-Parra, M. (2017) Recounting and reflecting: The use of first person pronouns in Chinese, Greek and British students' assignments in engineering.Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 26, 66-77.
  • Leedham, M. & Fernandez-Parra, M. (2017) Recounting and reflecting: The use of first person pronouns in Chinese, Greek and British students' assignments in engineering. Journal of English for Academic Purposes 26, 66-77.
  • Leedham, M (2015). Chinese Students’ Writing in English: Using visuals and lists. English Teaching in China (ETiC), 6 pp. 16–20.
  • Leedham, M (2015). Learning from lecturers: What disciplinary practice can teach us about ‘good’ student writing. In: Lillis, Theresa; Harrington, Kathy; Lea, Mary and Mitchell, Sally eds. Working with Academic Literacies: Case Studies Towards Transformative Practice.Perspectives on writing. Fort Collins, Colorado: The WAC Clearinghouse and Parlor Press, pp. 163–174
  • Leedham, M. (2015) Chinese students’ writing in English: Implications from a corpus-driven study. Routledge.
  • Leedham, M. 2014. Can I use 'we' and 'I' in my essay?Introducing corpus linguistics, Open Learn, the Open University.
  • Leedham, M. (2012) Combining intuition with corpus linguistic analysis: a study of marked lexical chunks in four Chinese students' undergraduate assignments.Nordic Journal of English Studies, 11(3), pp. 155–187.
  • Leedham, M. (2012) Writing in tables and lists: A study of Chinese students' undergraduatre assignments in UK universities. in Tang, R. (ed.) Academic Writing in a Second or Foreign Language: Issues and challenges facing ESL/EFL academic writers in higher education contexts. London: Continuum 146-164.
  • Leedham, M. (2009). From traditional essay to ‘Ready Steady Cook’ presentation: Reasons for innovative changes in Higher Education assignmentsActive Learning in Higher Education 10 (2) 191-206.
  • Louw, B. & C. Chateau (2010) Semantic prosody for the 21st Century: Are prosodies smoothed in academic contexts? A contextual prosodic theoretical perspective In: Bolasco, S., Chiari, I. and Giuliano, L. (eds) Statistical Analysis of Textual Data. Proceedings of 10th International Conference Journées d’Analyse statistique des Données Textuelles. Sapienza University of Rome 9-11 June 2010. pp 755-764.
  • Lughmani, S. D., Gardner, S., Chen, J., Wong, H., and Chan, L. (2016) English across the Curriculum: Fostering collaboration. ELTWO: Special Issue on 5th CELC Symposium Proceedings.
  • Łyda, A. (2016) Precision (and accuracy) in academic written and spoken English:  An exercise in awareness–raising. In Gałajda, D., Zakrajewski, P. and, Pawlak, M. (eds.) Researching Second Language Learning and Teaching from a Psycholinguistic Perspective. Springer pp.201-222
  • Malmström, H., Pecorari, D., Shaw, P. (2018) Words for what? Contrasting university students’ receptive and productive academic vocabulary needs.English for Specific Purposes 50 28-39.
  • Marco, M. J. L. (2011) Exploring atypical verb+noun combinations in learner technical writing. International Journal of English Studies 11 (2) 77-95.
  • Matte, M. L. & Sarmento, S. (2018) A corpus-based study of connectors in student academic writing.English for Specific Purposes World 55 (20)
  • McKenny, J. (2010) A Corpus Study of the Phraseology of Written Argumentative English.
  • McKenny, J. (2005) Stance and spin in academic writing. In: Lagerwerf, L., Spooren, W., and Degand, L. (eds) Determination of Information and Tenor in Texts: Multidisciplinary Approaches to Discourse, Amsterdam: Stichting Neerlandistiek VU & Münster: Nodus Publikationen pp 115-137.
  • McKenny, J. (2005) Content analysis of dogmatism compared with corpus analysis of epistemic stance in student essays. Information Design Journal + Document Design, 13 (1) pp 40-49.
  • McKenny, J. (2003) Seeing the wood and the trees: reconciling findings from discourse and lexical analysis. Technical Papers Volume 16. University of Lancaster: University Centre for Computer Corpus Research on Language (UCREL).
  • Mollet, E., Wray, A. & Fitzpatrick, T. (2011) Accessing second-order collocation through lexical co-occurrence networks. In: Herbst, T., Faulhaber, S. and Uhrig, P. ( eds.) Phraseological view of language: a tribute to John Sinclair. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 87-121.
  • Nathan, P. B. (2013) Academic writing in the business school: The genre of the business case report.Journal of English for Academic Purposes 12 (1) 57-68.
  • Nesi, H. (2021) Sources for courses: Metadiscourse and the role of citation in student writing. Lingua, 103040.
  • Nesi, H (2017) Information density in a corpus of university student writing. Proceedings of the International Conference Corpus Linguistics 2017, June 27-30, 2017, St. Petersburg State University. pp 66-71.
  • Nesi, H. (2014) Corpus Query Techniques for Investigating Citation in Student Assignments. In: M. Gotti & D. S. Giannoni (eds.) Corpus Analysis for Descriptive and Pedagogic Purposes: English Specialised Discourse. Bern: Peter Lang 85-106.
  • Nesi, H. (2013) Spreading the word: the challenge of the corpus as an agent of change. In C. Vargas-Sierra (ed) Corpus Resources for Descriptive and Applied Studies. Current Challenges and Future Directions: Selected Papers from the 5th International Conference on Corpus Linguistics (CILC2013). Procedia - Social and Behavioral Science Vol 95 4-11.
  • Nesi H. (2012) Writing in the disciplines. In Hardy, C. and Clughen, L. (eds.) Writing in the Disciplines: Building Supportive Cultures for Student Writing In UK HE. Emerald Group Publishing 57-75.
  • Nesi, H. (2011) Swimming with the Sharks: Helping students in infested waters. In Etherington, S. (ed.) English for Specific Academic Purposes: Proceedings of the 2009 BALEAP Conference. Oxford: Garnett 25-34.
  • Nesi, H. (2011) BAWE: an introduction to a new resource. In Frankenberg-Garcia, A. Flowerdew, L. & Aston, G. (eds) New Trends in Corpora and Language Learning. London: Continuum pp. 213-228.
  • Nesi, H. (2009). Extended abstract: A Multidimensional Analysis of Student Writing across Levels and Disciplines. In: Edwardes, M. (ed) Taking the Measure of Applied Linguistics: Proceedings of the BAAL Annual Conference. University of Swansea, 11-13 September 2008. London: BAAL/Scitsiugnil Press.
  • Nesi, H. (2008) BAWE: An introduction to a new resource. In Frankenberg-Garcia, A., Rkibi, T., Braga da Cruz, M., Carvalho, R., Direito, C. & Santos-Rosa, D. (eds) Proceedings of the 8th Teaching and Language Corpora Conference.Held 4-6 July 2008 at the Instituto Superior de Línguas e Administração, Lisbon, Portugal: ISLA: 239-246.
  • Nesi, H. (2008). Corpora & EAP. In: LSP: Interfacing Language with other Realms: Proceedings of the 6th Languages for Specific Purposes International Seminar. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Malaysia.
  • Nesi, H. (2008). Extended abstract: The form, meaning and purpose of university level assessed reflective writing. In M. Edwardes (ed) Proceedings of the BAAL Annual Conference 2007. Edinburgh University. London: BAAL/Scitsiugnil Press.
  • Nesi, H. (2008) Introducing BAWE: a new lexicographical resource. In Bernal, E. and DeCesaris, J. (eds.) Proceedings of the XII EURALEX International Congress. Held 15-19 July 2008 at Universitat Pompeu Fabra. Barcelona: Institut Universari de Linguistica Aplicada, Universitat Pompeu Fabra: pp. 737-752.
  • Nesi, H. & Gardner, S. (2018) The BAWE Corpus and Genre Families Classification of Assessed Student Writing. Assessing Writing Vol 38, pp 51-55
  • Nesi, H. & Gardner, S. (2017) Stance in the BAWE Corpus: New Revelations from Multidimensional Analysis. Proceedings 9th International Corpus Linguistics Conference, Birmingham University July 24-28 2017.
  • Nesi, H. & Gardner, S. (2015) Balancing old and new activity types on an academic writing website. In Kavanagh, M. and Robinson, L. (eds.) The Janus moment in EAP: Revisiting the past and building the future. Reading, UK: Garnet Education: 187-198.
  • Nesi, H. & Gardner, S. (2014) Families of genres of assessed writing Chapter 2 of Genres across the disciplines: student writing in higher education (pp 21–56). Reprinted in H. Basturkman (ed.) English for Academic Purposes: Critical Concepts in Linguistics. London: Routledge. 978-0-415-71634-5
  • Nesi, H. & Gardner, S. (2012). Genres across the Disciplines: Student writing in Higher Education. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Nesi, H. & Gardner, S. (2006). Variation in Disciplinary Culture: University Tutors' Views on Assessed Writing Tasks In: Kiely, R., Clibbon, G., Rea-Dickins, P. & Woodfield, H (eds) Language, Culture and Identity in Applied Linguistics. (British Studies in Applied Linguistics, Volume 21) London: Equinox Publishing pp. 99-117.
  • Nesi, H., Gardner, S., Forsyth R., Hindle D., Wickens P., Ebeling S., Leedham M., Thompson P., & Heuboeck A. (2005). Towards the compilation of a corpus of assessed student writing: An account of work in progress. In: Danielsson, P. and Wagenmakers, M. (eds) Proceedings from the Corpus Linguistics Conference Series. Birmingham: University of Birmingham.
  • Nesi, H., Gardner, S & Kightley, A. (2015) Writing for a Purpose. In Pattison, T. (ed.) IATEFL 2014: Harrogate Conference Selections. Faversham, Kent: IATEFL. pp. 145-146.
  • Nesi, H., Matheson, N. & Basturkmen, H. (2017) University literature essays in the UK, New Zealand and the USA: Implications for EAP. New Zealand Studies in Applied Linguistics, 23 (2), 25-38.
  • Nesi, H. & Moreton, E. (2012) EFL/ESL writers and the use of shell nouns. in Tang, R. (ed.) Academic Writing in a Second or Foreign Language: Issues and challenges facing ESL/EFL academic writers in higher education contexts. London: Continuum 126-145.
  • Nesi, H., Sharpling, G. & Ganobcsik-Williams, L. (2004) Student papers across the curriculum: Designing and developing a corpus of British student writing. Computers and Composition. 21 (4) 401-503.
  • O'Rourke, S. and Calvo, R. (2009) Analysing Semantic Flow in Academic WritingProceedings of the 2009 conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education: Building Learning Systems that Care: From Knowledge Representation to Affective Modelling . Amsterdam: IOS Press. 173-180.
  • Özbay, S. A. & Aydemir, T. (2016) A Computerized Corpus Analysis of the Use of Pragmatic Markers in Native and Non-Native Corpora. In: İşman, A. & Eskicumali, A. (eds.) Proceedings of the International Conference on New Horizons in Education, July 13-15, 2016, Vienna, Austria. pp.1-8.
  • Özbay, S. A. & Kabakci, B. (2016) Corpus Analysis of Support Verb Construction Use Through Native and Non-Native Academic and Argumentative Corpora. In: İşman, A. & Eskicumali, A. (eds.) Proceedings of the International Conference on New Horizons in Education, July 13-15, 2016, Vienna, Austria. pp.51-56.
  • Park, K and Lu, X. (2015) Automatic analysis of thematic structure in written English International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, 20 (1): 81–101
  • Parkinson, J. (2017) The student laboratory report genre: A genre analysis. English for Specific Purposes 45 (1): 1-13.
  • Prentice, M. (2012) A Method for Extracting Formulaic Sequences from a Student CorpusKanagawa University Repository Bulletin Papers No 34, 35-52.
  • Peng, W. (2015) A corpus analysis of Chinese students’ (mis-)use of nouns at XJTLU. In: Zou, B., Hoey, M. and Smith, S. (eds.) Corpus Linguistics in Chinese Contexts. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 114-133.
  • Preshous, A. & Kemp, J. (2017) Exploiting corpora to address the subject-specific vocabulary needs of students. In: Kemp, J. (ed.) EAP in a rapidly changing landscape: Issues, challenges and solutions. Reading: Garnet pp. 2015-215.

Q - Z

  • Reiter, N., Hellwig, O., Mishra, A., Frank, A., & Burkhardt, J. (2010) Using NLP Methods for the Analysis of Rituals. In: Calzolari, N., Choukri, K., Maegaard, B., Mariani, J., Odijk, J., Piperidis, S., & Tapias, D (eds) Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'10), 19-21 May 2010. Valetta, Malta: European Language Resources Association (ELRA).
  • Rustipa, K. (2014) Metadiscourse in Indonesian EFL Learners’ Persuasive Texts: A Case Study at English Department, UNISBANK. International Journal of English Linguistics. 4 (1) 44-52.
  • Schmied, J. (2015). Academic writing in English in comparison: Degree adverbials, and contract/concessive markers in the ChemCorpus and comparable data-bases. In Alastrué, R.P. & Pérez-Llantada, C. (eds.) English as a Scientific and Research Language (pp. 159-184). Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.
  • Sharpling, G. (2010) When BAWE meets WELT: The use of a corpus of student writing to develop items for a proficiency test in grammar and English usage. Journal of Writing Research. 2 (2), 179-195.
  • Smith, S. & Keng, N. (2013) The Acquisition of Classical Origin Words by Chinese, French, and Finnish Learners.  Language Education in Asia, 4 (2), 122-134.
  • Staples, S., Egbert, J., Biber, D. & Gray, B. (2016) Academic writing development at the university level: Phrasal and clausal complexity across level of study, discipline, and genre. Written Communication. 33 (2) 149–183
  • Taylor, L. & Barker, F. (2008) Using corpora for language assessment. In Hornberger, N. and Shohamy, E. (eds.) Encyclopedia of Language and Education. New York: Springer 241-254.
  • Taylor, H. & Goodall, J. (2019) A preliminary investigation into the rhetorical function of ‘I’ in different genres of successful business student academic writing. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, Volume 38, pp 135-145
  • Thompson, P. (2009) Shared disciplinary norms and individual traits in the writing of British undergraduates. In M. Gotti (ed) Commonality and Individuality in Academic Discourse. Bern: Peter Lang, pp 53-82.
  • Ullmann, T.D. (2019) Automated Analysis of Reflection in Writing: Validating Machine Learning Approaches. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education pp 1–41.
  • Vincent, B. & Nesi, H. (2018) The BAWE Quicklinks project: a new DDL resource for university students. Revue de Linguistique et de Didactique des Langues (Lidil), 58. 
  • Vincent, B. (2020) The Expression of Obligation in Student Academic Writing. Journal of English for Academic Purposes. 44
  • Vodyanitskaya, A. & Yaremenko, V. (2020) What is valuable in the academe: Corpus-based analysis. Society. Integration. Education. Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference. Volume II, May 22th-23th, 2020. 437-455.
  • Wagner, S. (2011) Concessives and Contrastives in Student Writing: L1, L2 and Genre Differences. In: Schmied, J. (ed.), Academic Writing in Europe: Empirical Perspectives. Göttingen: Cuvillier, 23.
  • Walkova, M. (2015) English academic vocabulary in native and non-native writing. In:  Kaščáková in, E. & K. Mihoková (eds.) Forlang. Košice: Technical University of Košice, pp. 204-213.
  • Whiteside, K. & Wharton, S. (2019) Semantic patterning of grammatical keywords in undergraduate academic writing from two close disciplines. Journal of English for Academic Purposes 39, 1-20
  • Wu, S. & Witten, I.(2016) Transcending Concordance: Augmenting Academic Text for L2 Writing. International Journal of Computer-Assisted Language Learning and Teaching, 6 (2) 1-18
  • Yang, W. (2019) A diachronic keyword analysis in research article titles and cited article titles in applied linguistics from 1990 to 2016. English Text Construction 12(1) 84-102
  • Yimam, S.M., Alonso, H.M.,  Riedl, M. & Biemann, C. (2016) Learning paraphrasing for multi-word expressions.Proceedings of the 12th Workshop on Multiword Expressions. Berlin, Germany, August 7-12, 2016, pp. 1–10.
  • Zhao, C. ‎(2014) Lexical Cohesion of Sino-British College Students’ EAP Writing. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 4 (10) 2123-2128
  • Zou, B. & Peng, W. (2015) A corpus-based analysis of the use of conjunctions in an EAP context at a Sino-British University in China. In: Zou, B., Hoey, M. and Smith, S. (eds.) Corpus Linguistics in Chinese Contexts. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp.134-157.

Student Work

In 2006 the University of Warwick Undergraduate Research Scholarship Scheme (URSS) funded a project by Laura Powell entitled 'Student perspectives on the nature of assessed academic writing.' This essentially replicated the Nesi and Gardner (2006) interviews with university tutors by asking similar questions to first, second and third year undergraduate students from the four disciplinary groups (Arts & Humanities, Social Sciences, Physical Sciences and Life Sciences). The project findings were presented at the University of Westminster Academic Literacies conference (Gardner and Powell 2006, see assessed academic writing slideshow and assessed academic writing (handout), and at the URSS Annual Conference, opened in October 2006 by Bill Rammell, Minister for Higher Education (see Powell 2006 poster).

Doctoral theses using the BAWE Corpus

MA and MPhil Dissertations using the BAWE Corpus
Doctoral theses using the BAWE Pilot Corpus
  • Fakhra, A. (2009) Relative Clauses and Cohesive Conjunctions in Syrian University Students' Writing in English. University of Warwick.
  • McKenny, J. (2007) A corpus-based investigation of the phraseology in various genres of written English with applications to the teaching of English for academic purposes. University of Leeds.
  • Paquot, M. (2007) EAP vocabulary in EFL learner writing: from extraction to analysis: A phraseology-oriented approach. Centre for English Corpus Linguistics, Université Catholique de Louvain.
  • Pramoolsook, I. (2008) Genre Transfer from Dissertations to Research Article among Thai Scientists. Centre for English Language Teacher Education, University of Warwick.
MA Dissertations using the BAWE Pilot Corpus
  • Mgina, A. (2004) Genre Analysis:  An Investigation of Syntactical and Lexical Features in Law Student Writing from Warwick School of Law. Centre for English Language Teacher Education, University of Warwick.

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