Research using the BAWE Corpus
Over a hundred publications have now reported research based on BAWE data (see below for a publications list).
Discipline, level, genre: Integrating multiple situational perspectives in a new MD analysis of university student writing, by Sheena Gardner, Hilary Nesi and Doug Biber is now an open-access publication in Applied Linguistics. This article identifies, describes and exemplifies clusters of linguistic features in the BAWE corpus, with reference to academic disciplines, disciplinary groups, levels of study and genre families.
See also A classification of genre families in university student writing by Sheena Gardner and Hilary Nesi, in Applied Linguistics 34 (1) 1-29.
Genres across the Disciplines by Hilary Nesi and Sheena Gardner describes and discusses genres of assessed writing in UK higher education, drawing on evidence from the BAWE corpus. Chapter Two is available open access. For reviews of this book see:
Chun, C. (2014) TESOL Quarterly 48 (4) 862-4
Lawrence, A. (2013) Journal of English for Academic Purposes 12 (4) 313-4
Lee, J. & Casal, J.E. (2013) System 41 (2) 485-7
Simpson, A. (2013) Review ~ Genres Across the Disciplines. Teflnet April 2013
Tribble, C. (2013) ELT Journal 67 (2) 253-260.
BAWE Corpus Manual
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The BAWE Corpus Manual, An Investigation of Genres of Assessed Writing in British Higher Education
Using Sketch Engine with BAWE
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Using Sketch Engine with BAWE
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- Allen, D. (2009). Lexical bundles in learner writing: An analysis of formulaic language in the ALESS Learner Corpus. Komaba Journal of English Education, Vol.1. 105-127.
- Alesón-Carbonell, M. & Ryneiskaya, A. (2012) CADS innovative corpus-driven methodology for the academic English instruction of transitional linkers. Departamento de Filología Inglesa, Universidad de Alicante.
- Alsop, S. & H. Nesi. (2009) Issues in the development of the British Academic Written English (BAWE) corpus. Corpora 4 (1) 71-83
- Back, Juhyun (2012) Culture and academic writing: Korean EFL learners' use of modal verbs in written academic discourse. The Linguistic Association of Korea
- Babanoğlu, M. P. (2017) A Corpus-based Study on the Use of Contractions by EFL Learners in Argumentative Essays. International Journal of Applied Linguistics & English Literature. 6 (2)
- Basthomi, Y., Yannuar, N., Hidayati, M & Tri Wijayanti, L. (2017) It is Expected …” between Religiosity and Evidentiality.The 4th International Conference on Language, Society and Culture in Asian Contexts, KnE Social Sciences, 227–237.
- Benitez-Castro, M-A. (2021) Shell-noun use in disciplinary student writing: A multifaceted analysis of problem and way in third-year undergraduate writing across three disciplines. English for Specific Purposes. 61,132-149.
- Boulanger, D., Clemens, C., Seanosky, J., Fraser, S., Kumar, V. (2019) Performance analysis of a serial natural language processing pipeline for scaling analytics of academic writing process. In Sampson, D., Spector, J.M., Ifenthaler, D., Isaías, P., Sergis, S. (Eds.) Learning Technologies for Transforming Large-Scale Teaching, Learning, and Assessment. New York, NY: Springer 123-151.
- Breeze, R. (2011) Disciplinary values in legal discourse: a corpus study. Iberica 21 93-116
- Bruce, I. (2010) Textual and discoursal resources used in the essay genre in sociology and English. Journal of English for Academic Purposes 9 (3) 153-166.
- Çandarlı, D. (2018). Changes in L2 writers’ self-reported metalinguistic knowledge of lexical phrases over one academic year. The Language Learning Journal, 1-17.
- Chen, M. (2013) Overuse or underuse: A corpus study of English phrasal verb use by Chinese, British and American students. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, 18 (1) 418-422.
- Chen, X. & Gardner, S. (2021) L2 Theme development in Discursive and Experimental undergraduate student writing. Register Studies. https://doi.org/10.1075/rs.20018.che
- Chan S-H. & H. Tan (2010) Extracting and comparing the intricacies of metadiscourse of two written persuasive corpora.International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology (IJEDICT), 6 (3) 124-146.
- Charles, M. (2011) Making concessions in academic writing: A corpus study of patterns and semantic sequences. Paper #88. In Groom, N. and Mason, O. (eds) Proceedings of the Corpus Linguistics Conference 2011. University of Birmingham, 20-22 July 2011
- Chen, Y.-H. & P. Baker (2010). Lexical Bundles in L1 and L2 Academic Writing. Language Learning and Technology, (14) 2, 30-49.
- Chen, X. & Gardner, S. (2021) L2 Theme development in Discursive and Experimental undergraduate student writing. Register Studies. https://doi.org/10.1075/rs.20018.che
- Choi, H., Wang, Z., Brooks, C., Collins-Thompson, K., Glover Reed, B. & Fitch, D. (2017). Social work in the classroom? A tool to evaluate topical relevance in student writing. Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM 2017), Wuhan, China.
- Crosthwaite, P. (2020). Taking DDL online: Designing, implementing and evaluating a SPOC on data-driven learning for tertiary L2 writing. Australian Review of Applied Linguistics 43 (2) 169-195.
- Crosthwaite, P., Gazmuri Sanhueza, A. & Schweinberger, M. (2021) Training disciplinary genre awareness through blended learning: An exploration into EAP students’ perceptions of online annotation of genres across disciplines. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 53 101021, 1475-1585 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeap.2021.101021
- Dong J., Wang H., Buckingham L. (2022) Mapping out the disciplinary variation of syntactic complexity in student academic writing. System 102974, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2022.102974.
- Doyle, J. & V. Keselj (2005) Automatic Categorization of Author Gender via N-Gram Analysis. Proceedings of the 6th Symposium on Natural Language Processing (SNLP'2005). Chiang Rai, Thailand, December 2005.
- Durrant, P. (2016). To what extent is the Academic Vocabulary List relevant to university student writing? English for Specific Purposes, 43, 49–61.
- Durrant, P. (2015). Lexical bundles and disciplinary variation in university students' writing: Mapping the territories. Applied Linguistics.
- Durrant, P. (2014) Discipline and level specificity in university students’ written vocabulary. Applied Linguistics. 35 (3) 328-356.
- Durrant, P. & Mathews-Aydınlı, J. (2011), A function-first approach to identifying formulaic language in academic writing, English for Specific Purposes 30 (1) 58-72.
- Ebeling, S.O. & Hasselgård. H. (2015). Learners' and native speakers' use of recurrent word-combinations across disciplines. Bergen Language and Linguistics Studies (BeLLS) vol. 6, 87-106.
- Ebeling, S. O. (2011). Recurrent word-combinations in English student essays. Nordic Journal of English Studies (NJES) 10 (1), 49- 76.
- Ebeling, S & Hasselgård, H. (2015) Learner Corpus Research. LCR2013 Conference Proceedings BeLLS 2015 Vol. 6, 87‒106.
- Ebeling, S & A. Heuboeck. (2007). Encoding document information in a corpus of student writing: the experience of the British Academic Written English (BAWE) corpus. Corpora 2 (2) 241-256.
- Ebeling, , S. O. & Wickens, P. (2012). Interpersonal themes and author stance in student writing. In: Hoffmann, S., Rayson, P. and G. Leech (eds) English Corpus Linguistics: Looking Back, Moving Forward: Papers from the 30th International Conference on English Language Research on Computerized Corpora (ICAME 30) pp. 23-40.
- Ersanli, C. Y. (2015) Insights from a learner corpus as opposed to a native corpus about cohesive devices in an academic writing context. Universal Journal of Educational Research 3(12): 1049-1053
- Evans, M. (2019) a study of academic genre: exploring writing in English for university purposes with Vietnamese students. VNU Journal of Foreign Studies 35 (1)
- Farahani, M. (2019) Metadiscourse in Academic English Texts: A Corpus-driven probe into British Academic Written English Corpus. Studies about Languages 34 56-73
- Fenogenova, A. & Kuzmenko, E. (2017) Automatic generation of lexical exercises. Proceedings of the International Conference “Dialog 2016”, Moscow, June 1–4, 2016.
- Fuster-Márquez, M., Clavel-Arroitia, B. (2011) Implementing an academic corpus in the English Language classroom in tertiary education, in: Carrió Pastor, Mª L., Candel Mora, M. A. (Eds.), Actas del 3 congreso internacional de lingüística de corpus, tecnologías de la información y las comunicaciones. Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Valencia, pp. 695-704.
- Gardezi, S. A. & H. Nesi (2009). Variation in the writing of economics students in Britain and Pakistan: the case of conjunctive ties. In: M. Charles, S. Hunston, D. Pecorari (eds) Academic Writing: At the interface of corpus and discourse. London: Continuum pp. 236-250.
- Gardner, S. and E. Moreton (2020) Written Corpora. Chapter 3 in S. Adolphs and D. Knight (eds) The Routledge Handbook of English Language and Digital Humanities Taylor and Francis/Routledge pp 26-48.
- Gardner, S. (2019) Pedagogical insights from contrastive studies of English and Chinese writers in the BAWE corpus. In Huemer, B., Lejot, E. & Deroey, K. (eds.) Academic writing across languages: multilingual and contrastive approaches in higher education. Schreibwissenschaft (Research on Writing) p. 105-126. Luxembourg: Böhlau-Verlag
- Gardner, S. (2017) Systemic Functional Linguistics and Genre Studies. In T. Bartlett and G. O’Grady (eds) The Routledge Handbook of Systemic Functional Linguistics London and New York: Routledge pp. 473-488.
- Gardner, S. (2017) Applying linguistics in TEAP: the case of student report writing. Proceedings of the 2015 BALEAP Conference. EAP in a Rapidly Changing Landscape: Issues, Challenges and Solutions. Edited by Jenny Kemp. Reading: Garnet Publications. pp 119-128.
- Gardner, S. (2016) A genre-instantiation approach to teaching English for Specific Academic Purposes: Student writing in Business, Economics and Engineering. In the Special Issue of Writing and Pedagogy on Disciplinary Writing edited by John Flowerdew. 8 (1): 117-144. DOI: 10.1558/wap.v8i1.27934.
- Gardner, S. (2012) Perspectives on the disciplinary discourses of academic argument. In Groom, N. (ed.) Proceedings of International Corpus Linguistics Association Meeting 2011: Discourse and Corpus Linguistics
- Gardner, S. (2012) A pedagogic and professional Case Study genre and register continuum in Business and in Medicine. Journal of Applied Linguistics and Professional Practice (JALPP), 9.(1) 13-35.
- Gardner, S. (2012) Genres and registers of student report writing: an SFL perspective on texts and practices. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 11 (1) 52-63
- Gardner, S. (2010). Initial Sentence Subjects and Angle on Field: Mapping ideational meaning across disciplines and years of study in a corpus of assessed student writing. In C. Jones and E. Ventola (eds) Field, Ideation & Experiential Representation: from Language to Multimodality. Series: Functional Linguistics edited by R. Fawcett. London: Equinox Publishing.
- Gardner, S. (2009). Extended abstract: Evaluation across Disciplinary Groups in University Student Writing: The Critique Genre Family as Texts and Text. In: Edwardes, M. (ed) Proceedings of the BAAL Annual Conference 2008. Taking the Measure of Applied Linguistics, Swansea University, London: BAAL/ Scitsiugnil Press. pp. 47-50.
- Gardner, S. (2008) Integrating ethnographic, multidimensional, corpus linguistic and systemic functional approaches to genre description: an illustration through university history and engineering assignments. In: Steiner, E and Neumann, S. (Eds.) ESFLCW 2007: Data and Interpretation in linguistic analysis. Proceedings of the 19th European Systemic Functional Linguistics Conference and Workshop 23rd - 25th July 2007, Saarbrücken, Germany: Universität des Saarlandes pp 1-34.
- Gardner, S. (2008). Mapping ideational meaning in a corpus of student writing. In C. Jones and E. Ventola ((eds) New Developments in the Study of Ideational Meaning: From Language to Multimodality. Series: Functional Linguistics edited by R. Fawcett. London: Equinox Publishing. pp 169-188.
- Gardner, S., Biber, D.& Nesi, H. (2015) MDA perspectives on Discipline and Level in the BAWE corpus. In: F. Formato and A. Hardie (eds) Proceedings of the 8th International Corpus Linguistics conference (CL2015), Lancaster University, 21- 24 July 2015. pp. 126-128.
- Gardner, S & Han, C. (2018) Transitions of Contrast in Chinese and English University Student Writing. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice 18 861-882
- Gardner, S. & J. Holmes. (2010). From section headings to assignment macrostructures in undergraduate student writing. In E. Swain (ed.) Thresholds and Potentialities of Systemic Functional Linguistics: Applications to other disciplines, specialised discourses and languages other than English. Trieste: Edizioni Universitarie Trieste (EUT). pp. 268-290.
- Gardner, S. & J. Holmes. (2009). Can I use headings in my essay? Section headings, macrostructures and genre families in the BAWE corpus of student writing. In: M. Charles, S. Hunston, D. Pecorari (eds) Academic Writing: At the interface of corpus and discourse. London: Continuum. pp. 251-271.
- Gardner, S. & H. Nesi (2013). A classification of genre families in university student writing. Applied Linguistics 34 (1) 1-29.
- Gardner, S., Nesi, H. and Biber, D. (2019) Discipline, level, genre: Integrating situational perspectives in a new MD analysis of university student writing. Applied Linguistics, 40 (4) 646–674
- Goulart, L., Biber, D. & Reppen, R. (2022) In this essay, I will …: Examining variation of communicative purpose in student written genres. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 59, 101159. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeap.2022.101159
- Han, C. & Gardner, S. (2021) However and other transitions in the Han CH-EN corpus. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 51(2): 100984
- Hasselgård, H. (2015) Lexicogrammatical features of adverbs in advanced learner English. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 166(1):163–189
- Hasselgård, H. (2016) Discourse-Organizing Metadiscourse in Novice Academic English. In: López-Couso, M. J., Méndez-Naya,B., Núñez-Pertejo, P. and & Palacios-Martínez, I. M. (eds.) Corpus linguistics on the move: Exploring and understanding English through corpora. Brill Online, pp 106-131
- Henderson, A . & Barr, R. (2010) Comparing indicators of authorial stance in psychology. students’ writing and published research articles, Journal of Writing Research 2 (2), 245-2.
- Hasselgård. H. (2019). The nature of the essays: The colligational framework ‘the N of the N’ in L1 and L2 novice academic English. In H. Parviainen, M. Kaunisto and P. Pahta (eds), Corpus Approaches into World Englishes and Language Contrasts, Helsinki: VARIENG e-series, Studies in Variation, Contacts and Change in English.
- Hasselgård. H. (2019). Phraseological teddy bears: frequent lexical bundles in academic writing by Norwegian learners and native speakers of English. In V. Wiegand and M. Mahlberg (eds), Corpus Linguistics, Context and Culture. Berlin: De Gruyter, 339-362.
- Hasselgård. H. (2017). Stating the obvious: signals of shared knowledge in Norwegian-produced academic English. In Pieter de Haan, Rina de Vries and Sanne van Vuuren (eds), Language, Learners and Levels: Progression and Variation. Louvain: Presses universitaires de Louvain, 23-44.
- Hasselgård. H. (2016). Conditional clauses in novice academic English: A comparison of Norwegian learners and native speakers. In E. Wennö, M. Tåqvist, P. Wikström and J. Wijkmark (eds), Fact or Fiction? Studies in honour of Solveig Granath. Special issue of Nordic Journal of English Studies 15 (2), 78-94.
- Hasselgård. H. (2014). It-clefts in English L1 and L2 academic writing. In K. Davidse, C. Gentens, L. Ghesquière and L. Vandelanotte (eds), Corpus Interrogation and Grammatical Patterns. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 295-320.
- Hiltunen, T. & Mäkinen, M. (2014) Formulaic Language in Economics Papers: Comparing Novice and Published Writing. In: M. Gotti & D. S. Giannoni (eds.) Corpus Analysis for Descriptive and Pedagogic Purposes: English Specialised Discourse. Bern: Peter Lang 347-368.
- Holmes, J. & H. Nesi (2009). Verbal and Mental Processes in Academic Disciplines. In: M. Charles, S. Hunston, D. Pecorari (eds) Academic Writing: At the interface of corpus and discourse. London: Continuum pp. 58-72.
- Hu, S. & Gu, Y. (2015) A corpus-based study of present tense distribution in Chinese students’ English writings. Proceedings of the International Conference on Social Science, Education Management and Sports Education (SSEMSE 2015) Beijing, China, April 10-11, 2015.
- Hulpus, I., Hayes, C., Karnstedt, M. & Greene, D. (2012) An eigenvalue-based measure for word-sense disambiguation. Proceedings of the 25th International Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society Conference, 226-231.
I - P
- Iyeiri, Y. (2017). Recent Changes in the Use of the Verb forbid. Memoirs of the Faculty of Letters, Kyoto University 56: 195-218.
- Iyeiri, Y. (2016) BAWE (British Academic Written English) ni Miru Hobun no Doko: Ruiji no Imi wo Yusuru forbid to prohibit ni tsuite no Shiteki Kosatsu (Recent trends in the choice of verb complements in contemporary English: forbid and prohibit in BAWE, two verbs of implicit negation, considered from a historical perspective). In Y. Ogawa, A. Nagano, and A. Kikuchi (eds.) Kopasu kara Wakaru Gengo Henka, Hen-i to Gengo Riron (Language Change, Language Variation and Corpus-driven Linguistic Theories). Tokyo: Kaitakusha, pp. 50-63.
- Jung, C.K. and Wharton, S. (2012). Finding Textual Examples of Genres: Issues for Corpus Users. Korean Journal of English Language and Linguistics 12 (1), 129-148.
- Kakkonen, T. (2009) TexComp - A Text Complexity Analyzer for Student Texts. Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Interactive Computer-aided Learning, Villach, Austria, 2009.
- Khamkhien, A. (2021) Functional patterns of lexical bundles and limitations in academic writing by Thai L2 English learners. Journal of English Language Teaching and Linguistics, 6(3) 607-632 https://jeltl.org/index.php/jeltl/issue/view/18
- King, D. & Hickey, H. (2017) Creating and using corpora: A principled approach to identifying key language within art & design. Spark: UAL Creative Teaching and Learning Journal, 2 (3)
- Kirk, S. (2017) Waves of Reflection: seeing knowledges in academic writing. In Kemp, J. (ed.) EAP in a rapidly changing landscape: issues, challenges and solutions. Proceedings of the 2015 BALEAP Conference. Reading: Garnet Publishing.
- Kwary, D.A. (2011) A hybrid method for determining technical vocabulary. System 39 (2) 175-185.
- Larsson, T., Reppen, R. & Dixon, T. (2022) A phraseological study of highlighting strategies in novice and expert writing. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 60, 101179 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeap.2022.101179.
- Lee, D. & X. Chen (2009) Making a bigger deal of smaller words: function words and other key items in research writing by Chinese learners. Journal of Second Language Writing, 18 (4) 281-296.
- Lee, D. & X. Chen (2008) Small words, big deal: teaching the use of function words and other key items in research writing. In: Frankenberg-Garcia, A., Rkibi, T., Braga da Cruz, M., Carvalho, R., Direito, C. & Santos-Rosa, D. (eds) Proceedings of the 8th Teaching and Language Corpora Conference. Lisbon, Portugal: ISLA, pp. 198-206.
- Leedham, M. & Fernandez-Parra, M. (2017) Recounting and reflecting: The use of first person pronouns in Chinese, Greek and British students' assignments in engineering.Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 26, 66-77.
- Leedham, M. & Fernandez-Parra, M. (2017) Recounting and reflecting: The use of first person pronouns in Chinese, Greek and British students' assignments in engineering. Journal of English for Academic Purposes 26, 66-77.
- Leedham, M (2015). Chinese Students’ Writing in English: Using visuals and lists. English Teaching in China (ETiC), 6 pp. 16–20.
- Leedham, M (2015). Learning from lecturers: What disciplinary practice can teach us about ‘good’ student writing. In: Lillis, Theresa; Harrington, Kathy; Lea, Mary and Mitchell, Sally eds. Working with Academic Literacies: Case Studies Towards Transformative Practice.Perspectives on writing. Fort Collins, Colorado: The WAC Clearinghouse and Parlor Press, pp. 163–174
- Leedham, M. (2015) Chinese students’ writing in English: Implications from a corpus-driven study. Routledge.
- Leedham, M. 2014. Can I use 'we' and 'I' in my essay?Introducing corpus linguistics, Open Learn, the Open University.
- Leedham, M. (2012) Combining intuition with corpus linguistic analysis: a study of marked lexical chunks in four Chinese students' undergraduate assignments.Nordic Journal of English Studies, 11(3), pp. 155–187.
- Leedham, M. (2012) Writing in tables and lists: A study of Chinese students' undergraduate assignments in UK universities. in Tang, R. (ed.) Academic Writing in a Second or Foreign Language: Issues and challenges facing ESL/EFL academic writers in higher education contexts. London: Continuum 146-164.
- Leedham, M. (2009). From traditional essay to ‘Ready Steady Cook’ presentation: Reasons for innovative changes in Higher Education assignments. Active Learning in Higher Education 10 (2) 191-206.
- Louw, B. & C. Chateau (2010) Semantic prosody for the 21st Century: Are prosodies smoothed in academic contexts? A contextual prosodic theoretical perspective In: Bolasco, S., Chiari, I. and Giuliano, L. (eds) Statistical Analysis of Textual Data. Proceedings of 10th International Conference Journées d’Analyse statistique des Données Textuelles. Sapienza University of Rome 9-11 June 2010. pp 755-764.
- Lughmani, S. D., Gardner, S., Chen, J., Wong, H., and Chan, L. (2016) English across the Curriculum: Fostering collaboration. ELTWO: Special Issue on 5th CELC Symposium Proceedings.
- Łyda, A. (2016) Precision (and accuracy) in academic written and spoken English: An exercise in awareness–raising. In Gałajda, D., Zakrajewski, P. and, Pawlak, M. (eds.) Researching Second Language Learning and Teaching from a Psycholinguistic Perspective. Springer pp.201-222
- Malmström, H., Pecorari, D., Shaw, P. (2018) Words for what? Contrasting university students’ receptive and productive academic vocabulary needs.English for Specific Purposes 50 28-39.
- Marco, M. J. L. (2011) Exploring atypical verb+noun combinations in learner technical writing. International Journal of English Studies 11 (2) 77-95.
- Matte, M. L. & Sarmento, S. (2018) A corpus-based study of connectors in student academic writing.English for Specific Purposes World 55 (20)
- McGrath, D. & Liardét, C. (2022) A corpus-assisted analysis of grammatical metaphors in successful student writing. Journal of English for Academic Purposes,101090. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeap.2022.101090
- McKenny, J. (2010) A Corpus Study of the Phraseology of Written Argumentative English.
- McKenny, J. (2005) Stance and spin in academic writing. In: Lagerwerf, L., Spooren, W., and Degand, L. (eds) Determination of Information and Tenor in Texts: Multidisciplinary Approaches to Discourse, Amsterdam: Stichting Neerlandistiek VU & Münster: Nodus Publikationen pp 115-137.
- McKenny, J. (2005) Content analysis of dogmatism compared with corpus analysis of epistemic stance in student essays. Information Design Journal + Document Design, 13 (1) pp 40-49.
- McKenny, J. (2003) Seeing the wood and the trees: reconciling findings from discourse and lexical analysis. Technical Papers Volume 16. University of Lancaster: University Centre for Computer Corpus Research on Language (UCREL).
- Mollet, E., Wray, A. & Fitzpatrick, T. (2011) Accessing second-order collocation through lexical co-occurrence networks. In: Herbst, T., Faulhaber, S. and Uhrig, P. ( eds.) Phraseological view of language: a tribute to John Sinclair. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 87-121.
- Nathan, P. B. (2013) Academic writing in the business school: The genre of the business case report. Journal of English for Academic Purposes 12 (1) 57-68.
- Nesi, H. (2021) Sources for courses: Metadiscourse and the role of citation in student writing. Lingua, 103040.
- Nesi, H (2017) Information density in a corpus of university student writing. Proceedings of the International Conference Corpus Linguistics 2017, June 27-30, 2017, St. Petersburg State University. pp 66-71.
- Nesi, H. (2014) Corpus Query Techniques for Investigating Citation in Student Assignments. In: M. Gotti & D. S. Giannoni (eds.) Corpus Analysis for Descriptive and Pedagogic Purposes: English Specialised Discourse. Bern: Peter Lang 85-106.
- Nesi, H. (2013) Spreading the word: the challenge of the corpus as an agent of change. In C. Vargas-Sierra (ed) Corpus Resources for Descriptive and Applied Studies. Current Challenges and Future Directions: Selected Papers from the 5th International Conference on Corpus Linguistics (CILC2013). Procedia - Social and Behavioral Science Vol 95 4-11.
- Nesi H. (2012) Writing in the disciplines. In Hardy, C. and Clughen, L. (eds.) Writing in the Disciplines: Building Supportive Cultures for Student Writing In UK HE. Emerald Group Publishing 57-75.
- Nesi, H. (2011) Swimming with the Sharks: Helping students in infested waters. In Etherington, S. (ed.) English for Specific Academic Purposes: Proceedings of the 2009 BALEAP Conference. Oxford: Garnett 25-34.
- Nesi, H. (2011) BAWE: an introduction to a new resource. In Frankenberg-Garcia, A. Flowerdew, L. & Aston, G. (eds) New Trends in Corpora and Language Learning. London: Continuum pp. 213-228.
- Nesi, H. (2009). Extended abstract: A Multidimensional Analysis of Student Writing across Levels and Disciplines. In: Edwardes, M. (ed) Taking the Measure of Applied Linguistics: Proceedings of the BAAL Annual Conference. University of Swansea, 11-13 September 2008. London: BAAL/Scitsiugnil Press.
- Nesi, H. (2008) BAWE: An introduction to a new resource. In Frankenberg-Garcia, A., Rkibi, T., Braga da Cruz, M., Carvalho, R., Direito, C. & Santos-Rosa, D. (eds) Proceedings of the 8th Teaching and Language Corpora Conference.Held 4-6 July 2008 at the Instituto Superior de Línguas e Administração, Lisbon, Portugal: ISLA: 239-246.
- Nesi, H. (2008). Corpora & EAP. In: LSP: Interfacing Language with other Realms: Proceedings of the 6th Languages for Specific Purposes International Seminar. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Malaysia.
- Nesi, H. (2008). Extended abstract: The form, meaning and purpose of university level assessed reflective writing. In M. Edwardes (ed) Proceedings of the BAAL Annual Conference 2007. Edinburgh University. London: BAAL/Scitsiugnil Press.
- Nesi, H. (2008) Introducing BAWE: a new lexicographical resource. In Bernal, E. and DeCesaris, J. (eds.) Proceedings of the XII EURALEX International Congress. Held 15-19 July 2008 at Universitat Pompeu Fabra. Barcelona: Institut Universari de Linguistica Aplicada, Universitat Pompeu Fabra: pp. 737-752.
- Nesi, H. & Gardner, S. (2018) The BAWE Corpus and Genre Families Classification of Assessed Student Writing. Assessing Writing Vol 38, pp 51-55
- Nesi, H. & Gardner, S. (2017) Stance in the BAWE Corpus: New Revelations from Multidimensional Analysis. Proceedings 9th International Corpus Linguistics Conference, Birmingham University July 24-28 2017.
- Nesi, H. & Gardner, S. (2015) Balancing old and new activity types on an academic writing website. In Kavanagh, M. and Robinson, L. (eds.) The Janus moment in EAP: Revisiting the past and building the future. Reading, UK: Garnet Education: 187-198.
- Nesi, H. & Gardner, S. (2014) Families of genres of assessed writing Chapter 2 of Genres across the disciplines: student writing in higher education (pp 21–56). Reprinted in H. Basturkman (ed.) English for Academic Purposes: Critical Concepts in Linguistics. London: Routledge. 978-0-415-71634-5
- Nesi, H. & Gardner, S. (2012). Genres across the Disciplines: Student writing in Higher Education. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Nesi, H. & Gardner, S. (2006). Variation in Disciplinary Culture: University Tutors' Views on Assessed Writing Tasks In: Kiely, R., Clibbon, G., Rea-Dickins, P. & Woodfield, H (eds) Language, Culture and Identity in Applied Linguistics. (British Studies in Applied Linguistics, Volume 21) London: Equinox Publishing pp. 99-117.
- Nesi, H., Gardner, S., Forsyth R., Hindle D., Wickens P., Ebeling S., Leedham M., Thompson P., & Heuboeck A. (2005). Towards the compilation of a corpus of assessed student writing: An account of work in progress. In: Danielsson, P. and Wagenmakers, M. (eds) Proceedings from the Corpus Linguistics Conference Series. Birmingham: University of Birmingham.
- Nesi, H., Gardner, S & Kightley, A. (2015) Writing for a Purpose. In Pattison, T. (ed.) IATEFL 2014: Harrogate Conference Selections. Faversham, Kent: IATEFL. pp. 145-146.
- Nesi, H., Matheson, N. & Basturkmen, H. (2017) University literature essays in the UK, New Zealand and the USA: Implications for EAP. New Zealand Studies in Applied Linguistics, 23 (2), 25-38.
- Nesi, H. & Moreton, E. (2012) EFL/ESL writers and the use of shell nouns. in Tang, R. (ed.) Academic Writing in a Second or Foreign Language: Issues and challenges facing ESL/EFL academic writers in higher education contexts. London: Continuum 126-145.
- Nesi, H., Sharpling, G. & Ganobcsik-Williams, L. (2004) Student papers across the curriculum: Designing and developing a corpus of British student writing. Computers and Composition. 21 (4) 401-503.
- O'Rourke, S. and Calvo, R. (2009) Analysing Semantic Flow in Academic Writing. Proceedings of the 2009 conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education: Building Learning Systems that Care: From Knowledge Representation to Affective Modelling . Amsterdam: IOS Press. 173-180.
- Özbay, S. A. & Aydemir, T. (2016) A Computerized Corpus Analysis of the Use of Pragmatic Markers in Native and Non-Native Corpora. In: İşman, A. & Eskicumali, A. (eds.) Proceedings of the International Conference on New Horizons in Education, July 13-15, 2016, Vienna, Austria. pp.1-8.
- Özbay, S. A. & Kabakci, B. (2016) Corpus Analysis of Support Verb Construction Use Through Native and Non-Native Academic and Argumentative Corpora. In: İşman, A. & Eskicumali, A. (eds.) Proceedings of the International Conference on New Horizons in Education, July 13-15, 2016, Vienna, Austria. pp.51-56.
- Park, K and Lu, X. (2015) Automatic analysis of thematic structure in written English International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, 20 (1): 81–101
- Parkinson, J. (2017) The student laboratory report genre: A genre analysis. English for Specific Purposes 45 (1): 1-13.
- Prentice, M. (2012) A Method for Extracting Formulaic Sequences from a Student Corpus. Kanagawa University Repository Bulletin Papers No 34, 35-52.
- Peng, W. (2015) A corpus analysis of Chinese students’ (mis-)use of nouns at XJTLU. In: Zou, B., Hoey, M. and Smith, S. (eds.) Corpus Linguistics in Chinese Contexts. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 114-133.
- Preshous, A. & Kemp, J. (2017) Exploiting corpora to address the subject-specific vocabulary needs of students. In: Kemp, J. (ed.) EAP in a rapidly changing landscape: Issues, challenges and solutions. Reading: Garnet pp. 2015-215.
Q - Z
- Reiter, N., Hellwig, O., Mishra, A., Frank, A., & Burkhardt, J. (2010) Using NLP Methods for the Analysis of Rituals. In: Calzolari, N., Choukri, K., Maegaard, B., Mariani, J., Odijk, J., Piperidis, S., & Tapias, D (eds) Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'10), 19-21 May 2010. Valetta, Malta: European Language Resources Association (ELRA).
- Ren, J. (2022). A comparative study of the phrase frames used in the essays of native and non-native English students. Lingua 274, 103376.
- Rustipa, K. (2014) Metadiscourse in Indonesian EFL Learners’ Persuasive Texts: A Case Study at English Department, UNISBANK. International Journal of English Linguistics. 4 (1) 44-52.
- Schmied, J. (2015). Academic writing in English in comparison: Degree adverbials, and contract/concessive markers in the ChemCorpus and comparable data-bases. In Alastrué, R.P. & Pérez-Llantada, C. (eds.) English as a Scientific and Research Language (pp. 159-184). Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.
- Sharpling, G. (2010) When BAWE meets WELT: The use of a corpus of student writing to develop items for a proficiency test in grammar and English usage. Journal of Writing Research. 2 (2), 179-195.
- Smith, S. & Keng, N. (2013) The Acquisition of Classical Origin Words by Chinese, French, and Finnish Learners. Language Education in Asia, 4 (2), 122-134.
- Staples, S., Egbert, J., Biber, D. & Gray, B. (2016) Academic writing development at the university level: Phrasal and clausal complexity across level of study, discipline, and genre. Written Communication. 33 (2) 149–183
- Taylor, L. & Barker, F. (2008) Using corpora for language assessment. In Hornberger, N. and Shohamy, E. (eds.) Encyclopedia of Language and Education. New York: Springer 241-254.
- Taylor, H. & Goodall, J. (2019) A preliminary investigation into the rhetorical function of ‘I’ in different genres of successful business student academic writing. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, Volume 38, pp 135-145
- Thompson, P. (2009) Shared disciplinary norms and individual traits in the writing of British undergraduates. In M. Gotti (ed) Commonality and Individuality in Academic Discourse. Bern: Peter Lang, pp 53-82.
- Ullmann, T.D. (2019) Automated Analysis of Reflection in Writing: Validating Machine Learning Approaches. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education pp 1–41.
- Vincent, B. & Nesi, H. (2018) The BAWE Quicklinks project: a new DDL resource for university students. Revue de Linguistique et de Didactique des Langues (Lidil), 58.
- Vincent, B. (2020) The Expression of Obligation in Student Academic Writing. Journal of English for Academic Purposes. 44
- Vodyanitskaya, A. & Yaremenko, V. (2020) What is valuable in the academe: Corpus-based analysis. Society. Integration. Education. Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference. Volume II, May 22th-23th, 2020. 437-455.
- Wagner, S. (2011) Concessives and Contrastives in Student Writing: L1, L2 and Genre Differences. In: Schmied, J. (ed.), Academic Writing in Europe: Empirical Perspectives. Göttingen: Cuvillier, 23.
- Walkova, M. (2015) English academic vocabulary in native and non-native writing. In: Kaščáková in, E. & K. Mihoková (eds.) Forlang. Košice: Technical University of Košice, pp. 204-213.
- Whiteside, K. & Wharton, S. (2019) Semantic patterning of grammatical keywords in undergraduate academic writing from two close disciplines. Journal of English for Academic Purposes 39, 1-20
- Wu, S. & Witten, I.(2016) Transcending Concordance: Augmenting Academic Text for L2 Writing. International Journal of Computer-Assisted Language Learning and Teaching, 6 (2) 1-18
- Yang, W. (2019) A diachronic keyword analysis in research article titles and cited article titles in applied linguistics from 1990 to 2016. English Text Construction 12(1) 84-102
- Yimam, S.M., Alonso, H.M., Riedl, M. & Biemann, C. (2016) Learning paraphrasing for multi-word expressions.Proceedings of the 12th Workshop on Multiword Expressions. Berlin, Germany, August 7-12, 2016, pp. 1–10.
- Zhao, C. (2014) Lexical Cohesion of Sino-British College Students’ EAP Writing. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 4 (10) 2123-2128
- Zou, B. & Peng, W. (2015) A corpus-based analysis of the use of conjunctions in an EAP context at a Sino-British University in China. In: Zou, B., Hoey, M. and Smith, S. (eds.) Corpus Linguistics in Chinese Contexts. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp.134-157.
- Ferreira, E. (2018) The expression of stance in English L1 and L2 student writing: A corpus-based study of stance marking. Supervisor: Professor Annelie Ädel. BA Degree Thesis, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Dalarna University, Sweden.
- McGregor-Cheers, A. (2012) Exploring the application and utility of contextual awareness in a predictive and adaptive word-ranking Language Modelling System. Finalist Project, Department of Computer Science, University of Warwick.
- Straka, M. (2016) Phrasal verbs and their equivalents in academic texts: A corpus study. Bachelor’s Diploma Thesis, Department of English and American Studies, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
In 2006 the University of Warwick Undergraduate Research Scholarship Scheme (URSS) funded a project by Laura Powell entitled 'Student perspectives on the nature of assessed academic writing.' This essentially replicated the Nesi and Gardner (2006) interviews with university tutors by asking similar questions to first, second and third year undergraduate students from the four disciplinary groups (Arts & Humanities, Social Sciences, Physical Sciences and Life Sciences). The project findings were presented at the University of Westminster Academic Literacies conference (Gardner and Powell 2006, see assessed academic writing slideshow and assessed academic writing (handout), and at the URSS Annual Conference, opened in October 2006 by Bill Rammell, Minister for Higher Education (see Powell 2006 poster).
Doctoral theses using the BAWE Corpus
MA and MPhil Dissertations using the BAWE Corpus
- Evans, M. (2017) Writing in English as a foreign language within higher education in Vietnam: an investigation of the genres, writing processes and perceptions of ten Vietnamese students. PhD thesis, University of Warwick.
- Han, C. (2018) The use of English transition markers in Chinese and British university student writing. PhD thesis, Coventry University
- Jung, C.K. (2011) Understanding Undergraduate Engineering Laboratory Reports (UELRs). PhD thesis, University of Warwick.
- Lan, Ge (2020) Noun phrase complexity, Academic level, and First- and Second-English Language Background in Academic Writing. PhD Thesis, Purdue University Graduate School. https://doi.org/10.25394/PGS.12192480.v1
- Larsson, T. (2016) The introductory it pattern in academic writing by non-native-speaker students, native-speaker students and published writers: A corpus-based study. PhD thesis, Uppsala University.
- Leedham, M. (2011) A corpus-driven study of features of Chinese students’ undergraduate writing in UK universities. PhD thesis, The Open University.
- Li, T. (2010) A study of metadiscourse in English academic essays: similarities and differences among Chinese undergraduates, 2+2 Chinese undergraduates and English native undergraduates. PhD thesis, University of Warwick. (Also refers to the pilot corpus)
- Morrall, A. (2020) A corpus-based comparison of the academic essay writing of British and Hong Kong students. Doctoral thesis, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
- Nathan, P. (2010) A genre-based study of pedagogical business case reports. PhD thesis, University of Birmingham.
- Tan, Helen (2011) Metadiscourse Features in the Persuasive Essays of Undergraduate Writers. PhD thesis, Universiti Putra Malaysia.
Doctoral theses using the BAWE Pilot Corpus
- Beal, R. (2006) A comparative analysis of cohesive signalling nouns in NNS and NS English undergraduate legal assignments. Centre for English Language Teacher Education, University of Warwick.
- Bond, R. (2016) Main grammatical writing errors of Chinese undergraduate students in UK universities: An error analysis and contrastive analysis hypothesis approach. MA Thesis, English Language and Linguistics, Leiden University, Netherlands.
- Brown, G. (2016) Authenticity of writing: Triangulating IELTS Academic Writing Task 2, EAP pre-sessional and Masters' tasks. Masters dissertation, Swansea University.
- Burrow, R. (2009) An analysis of Theme in undergraduate psychology essays: Disciplinary expectations and student intellectual development. University of Reading.
- Da Silva, L. G. (2016) Academic vocabulary: a corpus linguistics study on how Brazilian students write academic English. MA dissertation, Centre for Applied Linguistics University of Warwick
- Ferreira, E. (2019) Anaphoric demonstratives in student academic writing: A cross-disciplinary study of (un)attended 'this' and 'these'. MA Degree Thesis, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Dalarna University, Sweden.
- Fossan, Heidi (2011) The writer and the reader in Norwegian advanced learners' written English: A corpus-based study of writer/reader visibility features in texts by Norwegian learners of English and native speakers of English. MA thesis, University of Oslo
- Gardezi, A. (2007) Conjunction use by British and Pakistani economics students: a comparative corpus-based enquiry. Centre for English Language Teacher Education, University of Warwick.
- Hayakawa, M. (2010) A comparison of the use of Epistemic modals between English and Japanese students in academic writing. Department of English and Languages, Coventry University.
- Hindmarsh, S. (2014) Investigating the effects of corpus and configuration on assistive input methods. Masters dissertation, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.
- Ho Kin Loong (2012) “I believe that” or “It is suggested that”? Authorial presence in the use of reporting verbs in ‘soft’ discipline academic writing by community college students in Hong Kong. Master of Arts in Applied Linguistics, The University of Hong Kong.
- Jeffery, H. (2013) An exploration of first person pronoun use in successful student academic writing. Department of English and Languages, Coventry University.
- Johnson, I (2015) “He said … she said”: A corpus-based comparison of the citation skills of novice Chinese L1 undergraduate students in U.K. Higher Education with those of proficient exemplars. School of Languages and Area Studies, University of Portsmouth.
- Kuttig, K.D. (2012) Lexical bundles in published and student writing in Literary Studies. Department of English and Language Studies, Canterbury Christchurch University.
- Lie, Jonas Aaen. 2013. "The fact that the majority seems to be..." - A corpus-driven investigation of lexical bundles in native and non-native academic English. MA thesis, University of Oslo
- Mäki, J. (2015) Organise or Organize? The Development, Use and Recognition of Verbal Endings -ise and -ize in Contemporary British English. School of Language, Translation and Literary Studies, University of Tampere, Finland.
- Mansfield, K. (2012) The development, implementation and evaluation of English for Academic Purposes (EAP) materials for a London University. King’s College London.
- Morgan, M. (2011) A corpus based investigation into the relationship between propositional content and metadiscourse in student essay writing. Masters dissertation, University of Nottingham Ningbo-China campus, China.
- O’Rourke, S. T. (2009) Automatic semantic analysis for academic writing support. MPhil dissertation, School of Electrical and Information Engineering, University of Sydney.
- Pajmová, K. (2013) Gerund and -ing participial clauses in written and spoken academic texts. Masters dissertation, Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic.
- Peng, Ni (2009) The use of discourse markers in English writing of non-English-major postgraduates. Masters dissertation, Shandong Normal University, China.
- Thys, A. (2016) A genre-based study of research introduction writing in Spanish and English drawing on examples from the REDALYC and BAWE corpus. Master of Arts dissertation, University of Gent, Belgium.
- Zolotova, Ekaterina. 2014. Who am I? and Who are we? in argumentative and academic writing. A corpus-based study of author identity in the writing of native speakers and Russian learners of English. MA thesis, University of Oslo.
- Wu, J. (2016) A Corpus-Based Contrastive Study of Adverb-Verb Collocations in Chinese Learner English and Native Speaker English. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
MA Dissertations using the BAWE Pilot Corpus
- Fakhra, A. (2009) Relative Clauses and Cohesive Conjunctions in Syrian University Students' Writing in English. University of Warwick.
- McKenny, J. (2007) A corpus-based investigation of the phraseology in various genres of written English with applications to the teaching of English for academic purposes. University of Leeds.
- Paquot, M. (2007) EAP vocabulary in EFL learner writing: from extraction to analysis: A phraseology-oriented approach. Centre for English Corpus Linguistics, Université Catholique de Louvain.
- Pramoolsook, I. (2008) Genre Transfer from Dissertations to Research Article among Thai Scientists. Centre for English Language Teacher Education, University of Warwick.
- Mgina, A. (2004) Genre Analysis: An Investigation of Syntactical and Lexical Features in Law Student Writing from Warwick School of Law. Centre for English Language Teacher Education, University of Warwick.